Munich Agreement Sources

Czechoslovakia was informed by Britain and France that it could either resist Nazi Germany alone or submit to the prescribed annexations. The Czechoslovak government, recognizing the desperation of the struggle against the Nazis alone, reluctantly capitulated (September 30) and agreed to abide by the agreement. The colony gave Germany the Sudetenland from October 10 and de facto control of the rest of Czechoslovakia, as long as Hitler promised not to go any further. On September 30, after a little rest, Chamberlain went to Hitler`s house and asked him to sign a peace treaty between the United Kingdom and Germany. After Hitler`s interpreter translated it for him, he happily accepted. If Germany`s goal was the economic and financial destruction of Czechoslovakia, the Munich Agreements go a long way to satisfy it. But, one might insist, while the Czechs may suffer economically, they have the political protection of an international guarantee. September 29-30, 1938: Germany, Italy, Britain and France sign the Munich Accords, according to which Czechoslovakia must hand over its border regions and defenses (the so-called Sudetenland region) to Nazi Germany. German troops occupied these territories between 1 and 10 October 1938 and on 29 September, Britain and France reached an agreement with Hitler at a conference in Munich. Neville Chamberlain (Britain) and Edward Daladier (France) agreed with most of Hitler`s demands and had practically accepted or fought Germany alone. Czechoslovakia gave in to Hitler`s demands. Six months later (March 1939), Hitler broke all his promises and seized the rest of Czechoslovakia. On the 29th.

An agreement was reached on September 30, 1938, around 1:30 a.m.m. .m.[43] Adolf Hitler, Neville Chamberlain, Benito Mussolini, and Édouard Daladier signed the Munich Accords. The agreement was officially introduced by Mussolini, although the Italian plan was in fact almost identical to Godesberg`s proposal: the German army was to complete the occupation of the Sudetenland by October 10 and an international commission would decide on the future of the other disputed territories. The slogan „About us, without us!” (Czech: O nás bez nás!) summarizes the feelings of the Czechoslovak people (now Slovakia and the Czech Republic) towards the agreement. [Citation needed] With the transfer of the Sudetenland to Germany, Czechoslovakia (as the state was renamed) lost its defensible border with Germany and its fortifications. Without it, its independence became more nominal than real. Czechoslovakia also lost 70% of its steel industry, 70% of its electricity supply and 3.5 million citizens to Germany as a result of colonization. [61] Sudeten Germans celebrate what they considered their liberation. The impending war, it seems, had been averted.

The Czechoslovaks were appalled by the colony of Munich. They were not invited to the conference and felt betrayed by the British and French governments. Many Czechs and Slovaks refer to the Munich Agreement as the Munich diktat (Czech: Mnichovský diktát; Slovak: Mníchovský diktát). The term „betrayal of Munich” (Czech: Mnichovská zrada; Slovak: Mníchovská zrada) is also used because Czechoslovakia`s military alliance with France proved useless. This was also reflected in the fact that the French Government, in particular, had considered that Czechoslovakia would be considered responsible for a European war that would result if the Czechoslovak Republic defended itself by force against German incursions. [59] In 1938, the Soviet Union allied itself with France and Czechoslovakia. By September 1939, the Soviets were practically a comrade-in-arms of Nazi Germany, with Stalin fearing that a second Munich agreement with the Soviet Union would replace Czechoslovakia. Thus, the agreement indirectly contributed to the outbreak of war in 1939. [60] On the 22nd. Chamberlain, who was about to board his plane to go to Germany for further talks in Bad Godesberg, told the press that met him there: „My goal is peace in Europe, I am confident that this journey is the path to that peace.” Chamberlain came to Cologne, where he received a generous welcome with a German band playing „God Save the King” and Germans who gave Chamberlain flowers and gifts.

[32] Chamberlain had calculated that full acceptance of the German annexation of all sudetenland without reductions would force Hitler to accept the agreement. [32] When Hitler learned of this, he replied, „Does this mean that the Allies accepted Prague`s consent to the surrender of the Sudetenland to Germany?” Chamberlain replied, „Exactly,” to which Hitler reacted with a nod, saying that the Allies` offer was insufficient. He told Chamberlain that he wanted Czechoslovakia completely dissolved and its territories distributed to Germany, Poland, and Hungary, and ordered Chamberlain to take or leave it. [32] Chamberlain was shocked by this statement. [32] Hitler went on to tell Chamberlain that since their last meeting on the 15th, Czechoslovakia`s actions, which Hitler said involved murders of Germans, had made the situation unbearable for Germany. [32] Later in the meeting, a pre-arranged deception was made to influence and pressure Chamberlain: one of Hitler`s advisers entered the room to inform Hitler that other Germans had been killed in Czechoslovakia, to which Hitler shouted in response: „I will avenge each of them. The Czechs must be annihilated. [32] The meeting ended with Hitler`s refusal to make concessions to the Allies` demands.

[32] Later that evening, Hitler worried that he had gone too far to put pressure on Chamberlain and called the suite of Chamberlain`s hotel and said he would agree to annex only the Sudetenland, with no plans in other areas, provided that Czechoslovakia began the evacuation of ethnic Czechs from German-majority territories by September 26 at 8:00 a.m. .m. After pressure from Chamberlain, Hitler agreed to set the ultimatum for October 1 (the same date on which Operation Green was to begin). [37] Hitler then told Chamberlain that this was a concession he was willing to make to the prime minister as a „gift,” out of respect for the fact that Chamberlain had been willing to deviate somewhat from his previous position. [37] Hitler went on to say that after the annexation of the Sudetenland, Germany would no longer have territorial claims over Czechoslovakia and would conclude a collective agreement to guarantee the borders of Germany and Czechoslovakia. [37] Faced with high tensions between the Germans and the Czechoslovak government, Beneš secretly offered on September 15, 1938 to give 6,000 square kilometers (2,300 square miles) of Czechoslovakia to Germany in exchange for a German agreement to admit 1.5 to 2.0 million Sudeten Germans, whom Czechoslovakia would expel. Hitler did not respond. [13] The Munich Accords (Czech: Mnichovská dohoda; Slovak: Mníchovská dohoda; German: Munich Agreement) or Munich Betrayal (Czech: Mnichovská zrada; Mníchovská zrada) was an agreement concluded on 30 September 1938 in Munich between Nazi Germany, the United Kingdom, the French Third Republic and the Kingdom of Italy.

It provided for the „cession of the Sudeten German territory” from Czechoslovakia to Germany. [1] Most European countries celebrated the agreement because it prevented the war threatened by Adolf Hitler by allowing the annexation of the Sudetenland by Nazi Germany, a region in western Czechoslovakia inhabited by more than 3 million people, mostly German-speaking. Hitler proclaimed this was his last territorial claim in Europe, and the choice seemed to be between war and appeasement. On the 28th. At 10:00.m, four hours before the deadline and without accepting Hitler`s request for Czechoslovakia, the British ambassador to Italy, Lord Perth, summoned Italian Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano to request an urgent meeting. [37] Perth told Ciano that Chamberlain had asked him to include Mussolini in the negotiations and to urge Hitler to postpone the ultimatum. [37] At 11:00.m., Ciano met Mussolini and informed him of Chamberlain`s proposal; Mussolini agreed and responded by calling the Italian ambassador to Germany and telling him: „Go immediately to the Führer and tell him that whatever happens, I will be at his side, but that I ask for a delay of twenty-four hours before the start of hostilities. In the meantime, I`ll explore what can be done to fix the problem.

[40] Hitler receives Mussolini`s message during talks with the French ambassador. Hitler told the ambassador: „My good friend, Benito Mussolini, asked me to postpone the marching orders of the German army by twenty-four hours, and I agreed. Of course, this was not a concession, as the date of the invasion was set for October 1, 1938. [41] Addressing Chamberlain, Lord Perth thanked Mussolini and asked Mussolini to attend a conference of the four powers of Britain, France, Germany, and Italy in Munich on September 29 to resolve the Sudetenland problem before the 2:00 p.m. deadline.m. Mussolini agreed. [41] Hitler`s only demand was to ensure that Mussolini was included in the conference negotiations. [41] As U.S.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt learned that the conference was planned, he telegraphed Chamberlain, „Good man.” [42] In the meantime, the UK government asked Beneš to request an intermediary. As Beneš did not want to break his government`s relations with Western Europe, he reluctantly agreed. .



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